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The tri-island State of Grenada is of volcanic origin and consists of Grenada, Carriacou and Petit Martinique, which together have an area of 344 km2. Grenada is predominantly of volcanic origin, although some sedimentaryrocks of the Tertiary and Quaternary periods are present. The soils of Grenada are dominated by clay loams (84.5%) withclays (11.6%) and sandy loams (2.9%). The islands of Carriacou and Petit Martinique are also of volcanic origin and represent the exposed summitsof peaks on a single narrow bank of submerged volcanic mountains.

The passage of Hurricane Ivan in 2004, then Hurricane Emily in 2005, and their cumulative destructive effects on Grenada, Carriacou and Petite Martinique heightened the need toreduce human-induced influences in terms of vulnerability to naturaldisasters by placing greater emphasis on coordinated and integrated landuse planning, regularization of unplanned settlements, watershedresource conservation and rehabilitation and integration of hurricanesafety provisions in the rebuilding process.


The impacts of destructive cyclones on the watershed systems of smallislands are particularly evident in circumstances where the watershedsare highly degraded on account of unsustainable land management practices attributable to agriculture, housing or other infrastructuraldevelopment. The associated high rainfall accumulations tend to causemassive erosion in steep upland areas where the soils are renderedexposed, with consequent siltation of river channels and deposition ofsediment loads in offshore marine ecosystems.

Grenada faces challenges with maintaining a reliable supply of water especially during the drier months when demand exceeds supply and particularly at distal ends of the water distribution network. Carriacou and Petit Martinique are water-scarce since they have very limited ground water and no appreciable surface water on account of their small size. Pollution of freshwater surface and coastal waters are of increasing concern. A UN Division of Sustainable Development 2012 publication on climate change adaptation in Grenada identifies Grenada's water resources as a critical sector for priority adaptation action and for integration into national plans for sustainable development.

Main issues of concern on mainland Grenada include unsustainable land management associated with agricultural development and degradation of lowland coastal forests. Intensive grazing is of concern in the sister islands of Carriacou and Petit Martinique.

In 2004, Hurricane Ivan severely impacted agriculture and forests within upper watershed areas and recovery has been of major focus in the years since then.

The key issues threatening biodiversity include climate change influences, invasive alien species proliferation, habitat degradation and fragmentation particularly in lowland forests, and pollution of freshwater and coastal receiving environments. The country has some 3 endemic animals (Grenada Frog, Grenada Dove and the Tree Boa) and at least 5 endemic plants. The flagship specie that is most highly threatened is the endemic Grenada Dove.

National Focal Point

Dillon Palmer
Ministry of Agriculture, Lands, forestry, Fisheries and the Environment

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